Beginning of Sentence

Always spell out a number if it begins a sentence

One hundred and three years before his birth, Tolstoy's ancestor, Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy, was made a count.


Centuries should be spelled out:

Pushkin is the most beloved Russian poet of the nineteenth century.

The University of Marburg was among Europe's most important universities in the 18th century.

When used as an adjective, a hyphen should be placed in between the ordinal number and "century." Note that if referring to two different centuries in the same adjective phrase, the first century referred to should have a dash following it:

The essays within are organized chronologically, starting with Elena Boeck’s work on a late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century manuscript collection of Marian texts.


When referring to decades, use Arabic numerals. Never use an apostrophe.

A severe economic contraction characterized the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Tolstoy wrote War and Peace in the 1860's.


Use the format: Month Day, Year.

Do not spell out the number for dates.

Do not write out ordinal numbers

On March 17, 1921, Bolshevik forces entered the city of Kronstadt.

On March 17th, 1921, Bolshevik forces entered the city of Kronstadt.

On 17 March, 1921, Bolshevik forces entered the city of Kronstadt.

Many Numbers

Where many numbers occur within a paragraph or series of paragraphs, maintain consistency in the immediate context. If according to a rule you must use numerals for one of the numbers in a given category, use them for all in that category.

Page Numbers

Note: see also the page on In-Text Citations for more information on how to cite page numbers from sources.

Do not spell out the number for page numbers.

The youthful Beethoven, who named his third symphony for his hero, Napoleon, is a good example (Solomon 117).

Use p. or pp. only if you are referring to a page number without the author's name.

For a discussion of Smith's analysis of Karamzin's literary output, see pp. 117120.

When referring to a page number in a sentence, you can use "page" or "pages," but do not capitalize "page."

Example 3.5 on page 59 is labeled as the minstrels’ music from Rimsky-Korsakov’s The Snow Maiden.

However, it is preferable that you use parenthetical citations (without the use of p. or pp.) when referring to page numbers if possible.

Page Ranges

  • For ranges starting with a page number of 1 through 100 (or multiples of 100), use all digits of the end-range number: 3–10, 71–72, 96–117, 100–104, 1100–1113

  • For ranges starting with a page number of 101 through 109, 201 through 209, and so on, use only the changed part of the end-range number, and include a zero: 101–08, 1103–04

  • For ranges starting with a page number of 110 through 199, 210 through 299, and so on, use two or more digits of the end-range number, as needed: 321–28. 498–532, 1087–89, 11564–615

  • But if three digits of a four-digit first page number change in the four-digit end-range number, use all four digits of the second number: 1496–1504, 2787–2816

Parts of a Book

Use Arabic numerals for chapters, parts, volumes, sections, etc. (i.e. do not spell them out):

Chapter 10 of Capital is entitled "The Working Day."

Volume 3 of Capital was prepared by Friedrich Engels from notes left by Karl Marx and published in 1894.

Part 2 consists of three main segments that lead to a furthering of the Underground Man's consciousness.

Chapter Eleven is the climax of the novel.

When referring to parts of a book generically, or when referencing multiple parts of a book, do not capitalize:

Refer to the chapter about Nabokov's butterfly drawings for more information.

He criticizes in an earlier chapter to Mongolians without being well-informed about Mongolian history.

The author devotes several chapters to a description of traditional Hutsul culture.

The appendices serve as an invaluable source of information for the political economist.

For an overview of the history of populism in Russia, see chapters 2 and 3.

Confer Chapters 4, 6, and 8 for contemporary criticism of early Russian opera.

When referring to a specific part of a book, capitalize it:

This idea is highlighted in Chapter 15, “Embracing Curiosity.”

Please see Appendix A for a detailed list of major Russian exports in 2002.


Do not spell out numbers for percentages, and do not use the percentage sign (%). Use "percent," and not "per cent."

According to the Russian census of 1857, private serfs totaled 37 percent of the total population.

According to the Russian census of 1857, private serfs totaled 37% of the total population.

In statistical copy that calls for frequent use of numbers, it is acceptable to use %.

The proportion of students taking a language GCSE has fallen nationally from 68% in 2004 to 48% in 2017.

Small vs. Large Numbers

Spell out numbers less than 101 and all large numbers that can be expressed in two words.

The Russian empire was divided into thirty-four guberniyas (provinces) and oblasts (remote regions).

It is estimated that nearly four thousand civilians starved to death on Christmas Day, 1941.

Russia is a multi-national state with over 186 ethnic groups designated as nationalities