Citations and Quotations

For specific information on quoting text that is not written in English, please see the page on Translation.

For information on translating titles or if you should include the year when introducing the title of a text, please see the section on Titles in Foreign Languages.

In-Text Citations

SEEJ uses the MLA in-text citation system. This means that you do NOT provide a footnote with the bibliographic reference, but use the system outlined below and include the full bibliographic reference to the work in the References Section.

One Work by Author

When there is only one work by an author, cite in the format:

(Author Last Name ###).

(Rybakov 24).

(Rybakov, 24).

Notice there is no comma.

One Work by Author, Multiple Pages

When citing multiples pages or a selection of pages from a single source by a single author, separate the page numbers by a comma

(Rybakov 25, 56–57, 70)

One Work Cited Frequently

When one work is cited frequently without any other works cited in between, you can provide a simplified citation (just page number, no author name required).

The cult of the deer and elk is represented by petroglyphs found in Europe, Siberia, and the Caucasus (Rybakov 24). Clay figures of sorcerers have also been found along the Danube (27).

Multiple Works, Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, use:

(Author Last Name, Title ###) for books

(Rybakov, Ancient Slavic Paganism 55)


(Author Late Name, "Title" ###) for articles

(Rybakov, "Handicrafts of Ancient Rus" 4)

Two or More Authors

When there are two or more authors of a single work, use:

(Author 1 Last Name and Author 2 Last Name ###)

Single work: (Case and Daristotle 57)

Multiple Works: (Case and Daristotle, Canine and Feline Nutrition 57)

Three or More Authors

When there are three or more authors of a single work, use:

(Author 1 Last Name et al. ###)

(Case et al. 57)

(Case, Daristotle, and Jokic 57)

Citing Multiple Works in Same Sentence

When you are citing multiple works that are referenced in the same sentence, you place in the same parentheses separated by a semicolon

(Warren 35; McDonald 20)

(Warren 35, 56; McDonald 20, 46–47)

(Warren 35, McDonald 20)

Multi-Volume Works

When citing a multi-volume work, use the format:

(Author #: ###)

(Daiches 2: 776—77)

If the reference, in the References Section, only lists one volume (Vol. #), you do not need to include the volume number in the citation.

Volume number should be included if the author cites more than one volume in the article. In this case the reference must list the "# vols."

Block Quotations

For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks.